Literary encyclopedia. Nineteen Eighty-four, also published as 1984, novel by...

Presents the results of almost two centuries of internation

Mesopotamia was the home of many different civilizations spanning thousands of years which contributed significantly to world culture and progress. Many of the aspects of daily life taken for granted in the present day, such as writing, the wheel, a code of laws, the sail, the concept of the 24-hour day, beer-brewing, civil rights, and irrigation …Welcome to the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature. Learn about our Editorial Board. Browse the growing collection of articles, overviews and key subject works. Have questions about how to use the redesigned website? Check out What's Changed. Learn more. Letter from the editor The Oxford Encyclopedia of Literary Theory. Literary theory is the practice of theoretical, methodological, and sociological reflection that accompanies the reading and interpretation of literary texts; it investigates the conceptual foundations of textual scholarship, the dynamics of textuality, the relations between literary and other texts, and the categories and social conditions through ... Encyclopedia of Literature. kien le. Good. See Full PDF Download PDF. See Full PDF Download PDF. Related Papers. English literature(1) Gabriel nicodemus. Download Free PDF View PDF. English literature Selected English-language writers. kabtni souha. Download Free PDF View PDF. British literature. SADA OUEDRAOGO.American literature - Modernism, Realism, Postmodernism: Important movements in drama, poetry, fiction, and criticism took shape in the years before, during, and after World War I. The eventful period that followed the war left its imprint upon books of all kinds. Literary forms of the period were extraordinarily varied, and in drama, poetry, and fiction the leading authors tended toward ...In Germany Wilhelm Busch published a picture story, Max and Moritz (1865), that was an ancestor of the comic strip. The outstanding literary event of the time was Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), with illustrations by John Tenniel. It is one of the great fantasies of world literature for children (see Carroll, Lewis).Among the most important illustrators of the ...LITERARY FRIENDSHIPS. By tradition, the act of writing is an isolated one. Webster's English Dictionary (1858) defines an author as "One who produces, creates, or brings into being; as God is the author of the universe." Such godlike creation implies self-sufficiency, autonomy, and apartness, a Romantic conception of the literary artist still common in the early twenty-first century despite ...Summary. Southern Gothic is a mode or genre prevalent in literature from the early 19th century to this day. Characteristics of Southern Gothic include the presence of irrational, horrific, and transgressive thoughts, desires, and impulses; grotesque characters; dark humor, and an overall angst-ridden sense of alienation.Literary Encyclopedia: J. F. Powers Both novels and a volume of his collected stories have since been reissued by New York Review Books, though there remains a misperception that they hold appeal solely for Catholic readers.350 entries. This award-winning Encyclopedia surveys the vibrant terrain of American literature in 350 essays from leading scholars, encompassing the range and depth of American literary history from the 1600s to the present day. The Encyclopedia includes essays on poets, playwrights, essayists, and novelists, as well as major works and essays ...Klein, Leonard S. Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century. 2nd ed., Continuum Publishing Group, 1981-83. Martinez, Julio A. Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Cuban Literature. Greenwood, 1990. Seymour-Smith, Martin. New Guide to Modern World Literature. ...Since 1768, the Encyclopedia Britannica has set the standard for general reference works. Four thousand contributors—including 110 Nobel Prize winners and five US presidents—have written on half a million topics. The 32 volumes cover geography, biography, biology, medicine, literature, religion, philosophy, art, law, and more. The 11th edition was recognized particularly for its ...George Henry Lewes was the most versatile of Victorian journalists. In 1841 he had married Agnes Jervis, by whom he had four sons. In 1850 Lewes and a friend, the journalist Thornton Leigh Hunt, founded a radical weekly called The Leader, for which he wrote the literary and theatrical sections.In April 1850, two weeks after the first number appeared, Agnes Lewes gave birth to a son whose ...dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance.. The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something performed.Most of the problems, and much of the interest, in the study of dramatic literature stem from this contradiction.This is the first comprehensive multi-volume encyclopedia of literary and cultural theory. Arranged in three volumes covering Literary Theory from 1900 to 1966, Literary Theory from 1966 to the present, and Cultural Theory, this encyclopedia provides accessible entries on the important concepts, theorists and trends in post-1900 literary and cultural theory. With explanations of complex terms ...Leo Tolstoy, Russian author, a master of realistic fiction and one of the world's greatest novelists. Tolstoy is best known for his two longest works, War and Peace (1865-69) and Anna Karenina (1875-77), which are commonly regarded as among the finest novels ever written. War and Peace in.The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online covers all aspects of philosophy, providing access to over 2,700 articles that have been edited for level and consistency by a team of subject experts. Regularly updated with new and revised articles, it is an ideal entry point for further discovery and research, with over 25,000 cross-references ...short story, brief fictional prose narrative that is shorter than a novel and that usually deals with only a few characters.. The short story is usually concerned with a single effect conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or scenes. The form encourages economy of setting, concise narrative, and the omission of a complex plot; character is …Following extensive revision, updating and extension, publication of the second edition of the Killy Lexicon of Literature is now complete. This makes a new and improved edition of this renowned standard work of German literary studies available to scholars, students, and literature enthusiasts. First published in the period 1988 to 1993, the Killy has since achieved the status of a well-known ... Critical race theory is an intellectual movement and a framework of legal analysis according to which (1) race is a culturally invented category used to oppress people of colour and (2) the law and legal institutions in the United States are inherently racist insofar as they function to create and maintain social, political, and economic inequalities between white …Literature - Sources, Themes, Genres: By the time literature appears in the development of a culture, the society has already come to share a whole system of stereotypes and archetypes: major symbols standing for the fundamental realities of the human condition, including the kind of symbolic realities that are enshrined in religion and myth. Literature may use such symbols directly, but all ...This essay is an excellent example of how literary history can be made to speak not only through the voices of highly canonical authors, but also by looking at publications that have celebrated the majority of the population in colonised countries, who were black, working class, or poor. Many of the poets and artists included in the FOCUS ...Korean literature, the body of works written by Koreans, at first in Classical Chinese, later in various transcription systems using Chinese characters, and finally in Hangul (Korean: han'gŭl; Hankul in the Yale romanization), the national alphabet.. Although Korea has had its own language for several thousand years, it has had a writing system only since the mid-15th century, when Hangul ...NATIVE AMERICAN LITERATURENineteenth-century Native American literature is a literature of transition, the bridge between an oral tradition that flourished for centuries before the arrival of Europeans and the emergence of contemporary fiction in the 1960s, known as the Native American Renaissance. Source for information on Native American Literature: American History Through Literature 1820 ...Grammar Quiz. In the sentence "John kicked the football across the yard," what... Antonyms and Synonyms. You may know that opposites attract and likes repel, but how... 49 Questions from Britannica’s Most Popular Literature Quizzes. Literature is a broad term that—among Britannica’s quizzes,... The Eugene O'Neill Universe Quiz. List of narrative techniques. A narrative technique (known for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fictional device) is any of several specific methods the creator of a narrative uses to convey what they want [1] —in other words, a strategy used in the making of a narrative to relay information to the ...Login. Log in with your Literary Encyclopedia account. Username. Login. Forgotten details. Please click here to create a personal user account. Log in via a subscribing institution. or enter your organisation's name. or pick from this list.The Literary Encyclopedia. WORLD HISTORY AND IDEAS: A CROSS-CULTURAL VOLUME . Modernism is variously argued to be a period, style, genre, or combination of the above; but it is first of all a word; one which exists alongside cognate words. Its stem, "Modern", is a term that, from the latin modo, means "current", and so has a far wider ...From the 1740s through the nineteenth century, Philadelphia was home to a succession of influential literary magazines.From the beginning, literary history tended to be presented as a sequential progression — a dialogue or "confrontation" between successive ages and schools of writing, one "great book" or "genius" spurring another, starting with texts concerned with man's status in the universe, specifically his mortal limitations as opposed to the immortal gods. GENRE READINGA genre is a category of literature that producers and audiences self-consciously recognize as marked by a distinctive style, form, or content. In contemporary usage, genre reading usually refers to genres that developed historically from pulp magazines in the early twentieth century—mysteries, Westerns, romances, and science fiction (sometimes including fantasy and horror).It explains and illustrates the literary symbols that we frequently encounter (such as swan, rose, moon, gold) and gives thousands of cross-references and quotations. The dictionary concentrates on English literature, but its entries range widely from the Bible and classical authors to the twentieth century, taking in American and European ...Literary text definition: Literary means concerned with or connected with the writing , study, or appreciation of... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examplesThe 21st century. As the 21st century got underway, history remained the outstanding concern of English literature.Although contemporary issues such as global warming and international conflicts (especially the Second Persian Gulf War and its aftermath) received attention, writers were still more disposed to look back. Bennett's play The History Boys (filmed 2006) premiered in 2004; it ..."Encyclopedia" is the tale of an unknown writer striving to prepare "a series of descriptions intended for our descendants." In this story, such an encyclopedia would be written by descrittori rather than scrittori, describers instead of writers, and be funded by society's large cultural institutions such as universities.Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Michel de Montaigne, the sixteenth century French essayist, is one of the most renowned literary and philosophical figures of the late Renaissance. The one book he wrote, Les Essais de Michel de Montaigne, is not a traditional work of philosophy. Having begun work on it around 1572, he published the first edition ...Sep 21, 2023 · The bibliographies for literature provide a brief overview of writers, literary movements, etc. followed by an extensive bibliography (list of influential sources with brief summaries). Excellent starting point for research. Under Islam, Persian was an Arabicized form of the pre-Islamic language of Iran and written in the Arabic script. Arabic written literature begins with the foundational sacred book of Islam, the Qur'an, which came down in a series of separate revelations to the Prophet Muhammad from about 609 to 632.Literary stylistics is an applied discipline that draws on a range of linguistic approaches, models and methods to study literary texts. In the digital age, stylistics has benefitted from the availability of digitised versions of literary texts. In this chapter, we deal with the contribution that corpus methods can make to the study of these texts.The Literary Encyclopedia aims to serve as an authoritative reference work suitable for use by students, researchers, and scholars in the field of literary and cultural studies, as well as by all others interested in authoritative discussions on literary and cultural history. The pedagogic and scholarly aims of The Literary Encyclopedia are:C.S. Lewis, in full Clive Staples Lewis, (born November 29, 1898, Belfast, Ireland [now in Northern Ireland]—died November 22, 1963, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England), Irish-born scholar, novelist, and author of about 40 books, many of them on Christian apologetics, including The Screwtape Letters and Mere Christianity.His works of greatest lasting fame …Covers eight key subject areas including Literature, Architecture, Visual Arts, Music, Dance, Theatre, Film, and Intellectual Currents. Over one thousand articles, global in scope, with interdisciplinary content on the Modernist period. Third World Women's Literatures: A Dictionary and Guide to Materials in English.From the 1740s through the nineteenth century, Philadelphia was home to a succession of influential literary magazines.Voltaire dominated the discourse of his era. In his writing, he left virtually no subject untouched. Voltaire wrote on subjects as distinct as metaphysics and politics, and he circulated nearly as many books of history as he did books of political theory. Common themes pervade his work: liberty, progress, and equality are discussed at length and in …Candide ou l'Optimisme [ Candide or Optimism] (1759) is a philosophical tale written by Voltaire. This genre, perfected by Voltaire, combines the story structure and supernatural aspects of a fairytale with the ideological reflection of a philosophical treatise. The most read and commented work by Voltaire, Candide summarizes the writer's ...German literature, German literature comprises the written works of the German-speaking peoples of central Europe.It has shared the fate of German politics and history: fragmentation and discontinuity. Germany did not become a modern nation-state until 1871, and the prior history of the various German states is marked by warfare, religious turmoil, …Development in the Literary form of Medieval Philosophy. 1. Historical Sources. Medieval philosophical texts have as their formal sources Greek commentaries, Neoplatonic treatises, dialogues, and allegories, as well as Aristotelian treatises, and the works of Augustine. Before the formal development of universities and university curricula that ...Login. Log in with your Literary Encyclopedia account. Username. Login. Forgotten details. Please click here to create a personal user account. Log in via a subscribing institution. or enter your organisation's name. or pick from this list.Modernism, in the fine arts, late 19th to mid-20th century, a break with the past and the concurrent search for new forms of expression. It fostered a period of experimentation in literature, music, dance, visual art, and architecture. Learn more about the history of Modernism and its various manifestations. On Nov. 28, 1582, a license was issued by the Bishop of Worcester to "William Shagspere" to marry "Anne Hathwey" of Stratford after one reading of the banns. According to the inscription on her gravestone, Anne Shakespeare died on Aug. 6, 1623, aged 67 years, and was thus eight years older than her husband.Hebrew literature, the body of written works produced in the Hebrew language and distinct from Jewish literature, which also exists in other languages.. Literature in Hebrew has been produced uninterruptedly from the early 12th century bc, and certain excavated tablets may indicate a literature of even greater antiquity.From 1200 bc to c. ad 200, Hebrew was a spoken language in Palestine ...The Literary Encyclopedia (www.litencyc.com) is seeking qualified writers to enhance its coverage of seventeenth-century French literature and culture. The present call for contributions specifically targets the "People" section of the volume, and the editors are soliciting biographical articles about well-known writers, artists, and ...The Children's Encyclopedia - by Arthur Mee, published 1908-64 in the UK and in the US starting in 1910 as Grolier's The Book of Knowledge. Children's Illustrated Encyclopedia - published by Dorling Kindersley. Collier's Encyclopedia. Columbia Encyclopedia - one-volume encyclopedia from Columbia University Press last published in 2000.Biblio.com - "Biblio brings together thousands of independent booksellers worldwide to offer you over 50 million used, rare, out-of-print, signed and first edition books and textbooks. Searching is done by author, title, keyword, or isbn number. Search Biblio for great used books and text books at great prices!"dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance.. The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something performed.Most of the problems, and much of the interest, in the study of dramatic literature stem from this contradiction.Literature I: Literary Form and Politics. Political Debate. Revolutionary era literature was written in the context of political conflict. In thousands of columns of colonial newspapers, hundreds of published pamphlets, and countless topical poems this polemical writing addressed particular issues and events that led to war with the mother country.In this way, literature can be read as a peculiarly sensitive timepiece of its own, both reflecting and responding to the complex and varied history of shared time.Over the course of the 20th century, literary time has become an increasingly prominent issue for literary critics. ... Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature Advanced search ...Alexander Pope. The English poet and satirist Alexander Pope (1688-1744) was the greatest poet and verse satirist of the Augustan period. No other poet in the history of English literature has handled the heroic couplet with comparable flexibility and brilliance.. Alexander Pope inherited from John Dryden the verse from that he chose to perfect. He polished his work with meticulous care and ...Desiderius Erasmus was born October 27, 1466, most likely in Rotterdam, Netherlands. He attended cathedral school, where he was first exposed to Renaissance humanistic thought, and his desire for the intellectual life was born. He used his religious education to access as many classics as he could find.Probably the best-known and influential journalist of the Weimar Republic, Kurt Tucholsky displayed a mastery of various literary forms, all of which he employed in his harsh critique of German society.The Literary Encyclopedia is a wide-ranging reference work focused on literary and cultural history. The encyclopedia includes biographies of major and minor writers; scholarly descriptions of these authors' texts; and reflective and analytical essays on literary, cultural and historical matters. It aims to cover the full breath of world ...L the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the eleventh of the ancient Roman one, corresponding to Greek lambda and ultimately Semitic lamed. L is the Roman numeral for 50. Originally, this was a symbol identified with the letter L because of coincidence of form. In ancient Roman notation, L with a stroke above denoted 50,000.Under Islam, Persian was an Arabicized form of the pre-Islamic language of Iran and written in the Arabic script. Arabic written literature begins with the foundational sacred book of Islam, the Qur'an, which came down in a series of separate revelations to the Prophet Muhammad from about 609 to 632.Geoffrey Chaucer (l. c. 1343-1400 CE) was a medieval English poet, writer, and philosopher best known for his work The Canterbury Tales, a masterpiece of world literature. The Canterbury Tales is a work of poetry featuring a group of pilgrims from different social classes on a journey to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket in Canterbury …American literature, both in the way it was practiced and the way it was perceived, came of age in the period between 1870 and 1920. During these years American writing distinguished itself stylistically and thematically from the European tradition to which it had been dismissively compared for more than a century.biblical literature, four bodies of written works: the Old Testament writings according to the Hebrew canon; intertestamental works, including the Old Testament Apocrypha; the New Testament writings; and the New Testament Apocrypha.. The Old Testament is a collection of writings that was first compiled and preserved as the sacred books of the ancient Hebrew people.American literature - Literary Criticism, Social Commentary, Realism: Until his death in 1972, Edmund Wilson solidified his reputation as one of America's most versatile and distinguished men of letters. The novelist John Updike inherited Wilson's chair at The New Yorker and turned out an extraordinary flow of critical reviews collected in volumes such as Hugging the Shore (1983) and Odd ...Elie Wiesel (1928-2016) was one of the most famous survivors of the Holocaust and a world-renowned author and champion of human rights. His first book, Night, recounts his suffering as a teenager at Auschwitz and has become a classic of Holocaust literature. In 1986, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Wiesel was born on September 30, 1928 ...As Julie Rak noted in 2018, Marlene Kadar's essay "Coming to Terms: Life Writing—from Genre to Critical Practice," although written in 1992, still offers a useful account of life writing's history as a term, and is still a timely reminder to examine constantly the often-buried theoretical assumptions defining and confining it.After noting that because "life writing" was in use ...The Norton Anthology of African American Literature is McKay’s most prominent publication; McKay and Gates were the general editors, and along with nine other African American literary scholars, they created the definitive anthology of African American literature. It presents the works of 120 authors, including 52 women, from 1746 to the ... Song of Solomon, also called Canticle of Canticles, or Song of Songs, an Old Testament book that belongs to the third section of the biblical canon, known as the Ketuvim, or “Writings.”. In the Hebrew Bible the Song of Solomon stands with Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther and with them makes up the Megillot, five scrolls …Arthurian legend, the body of stories and medieval romances, known as the matter of Britain, centring on the legendary king Arthur.Medieval writers, especially the French, variously treated stories of Arthur’s birth, the adventures of his knights, and the adulterous love between his knight Sir Lancelot and his queen, Guinevere.This last …Mar 20, 2019 · Medieval Literature is defined broadly as any work written in Latin or the vernacular between c. 476-1500, including philosophy, religious treatises, legal texts, as well as works of the imagination. More narrowly, however, the term applies to literary works of poetry, drama, romance, epic prose, and histories written in the vernacular, though ... postmodernism, also spelled post-modernism, in Western philosophy, a late 20th-century movement characterized by broad skepticism, subjectivism, or relativism; a general suspicion of reason; and an acute sensitivity to the role of ideology in asserting and maintaining political and economic power.. This article discusses postmodernism in …92NY announced Monday that it's pausing its prestigious literary reading series after pushback for canceling an event with a Pulitzer Prize-winning author who has made …The best-selling Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (formerly the Concise dictionary) provides clear, concise, and often witty definitions of the most troublesome literary terms from abjection to zeugma. Now available in a new, fully updated and expanded edition, it offers readers increased coverage of new terms from modern critical and ...Hardcover. $22.42 25 Used from $13.52. Long recognized as the supreme reference on world literature, Benét's Reader's Encyclopedia is the single-most complete one-volume encyclopedia available for those with a serious interest in the subject. More than 10,000 entries explore all aspects of literature from around the world: biographies of poets ...The Literary Encyclopedia publishes articles (c. 25-40 new essays each month) on the widest variety of quality writing that has been produced around the world. It grows by around one …Book burning refers to the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials. Usually carried out in a public context, the burning of books represents an element of censorship and usually proceeds from a cultural, religious, or political opposition to the materials in question. The burning of books under the Nazi regime on May 10 ...satire, artistic form, chiefly literary and dramatic, in which human or individual vices, follies, abuses, or shortcomings are held up to censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony, parody, caricature, or other methods, sometimes with an intent to inspire social reform. Satire is a protean term.. Leo Tolstoy, Russian author, a master of realistic fiction and onLiterature - Sources, Themes, Genres: By the time literatu Under Islam, Persian was an Arabicized form of the pre-Islamic language of Iran and written in the Arabic script. Arabic written literature begins with the foundational sacred book of Islam, the Qur'an, which came down in a series of separate revelations to the Prophet Muhammad from about 609 to 632.The Literary Encyclopedia is an online reference work that provides authoritative articles about literary and cultural history. Coverage includes English-language, Classical, German, French and Francophone, Hispanic, Italian, Russian, East European, and other world literatures. Over 7800 articles are included, with 20-40 new articles currently being added each month. The Oxford Anthology of Roman Literature. Written by Knox, Peter author, one who is the source of some form of intellectual or creative work; especially, one who composes a book, article, poem, play, or other literary work intended for publication.Usually a distinction is made between an author and others (such as a compiler, an editor, or a translator) who assemble, organize, or manipulate literary …"Literary Theory," in The Encyclopedia of Biblical Reception, de Gruyter, pp. 823-827, 2018. Since its emergence as a modern discipline, literary criticism has evaded many of the constraints of philology and rhetoric - fields which had required readers to have an extensive training and familiarity with an array of tropes, languages, and ... Article. 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